1) ccTLD full Form is Country Code Top Level Domain, Example : .CA is for Canada, .SG is for Singapore, .DE is for Germany, ccTLD normally composed of 2 Letters.
ccTLD is useful for Local Presence.
2) gTLD full Form is Generic Top Level Domain, Ex: .TOP, .XYZ, .ONLINE, .SITE etc.
gTLD Domain is useful for SEO 301 redirect, Niche Specific Domain, like if you are real estate company you should buy .REALESTATE TLD
3) Other TLD is "Legacy TLD" i.e. Old TLD exist before year 2010 like .COM , .NET, .ORG, .BIZ
These are Globally recognised.
4) grTLD is Restricted Generic Top Level Domain, Ex: .BIZ, .NAME, .PRO
5) Non Latin Character TLD's also exist in local Language called IDN ccTLD .中国 , .台灣 , .한국 etc
Useful if your business is local to your country and native language.
6) sTLD is Sponsored Top Level Domain like .MAKEUP, .TRAVEL, .COOP, .MOBI etc.
7) Second Level Top Level Domain is nothing but it is having Two Dots in it, Example : .CO.UK ,.CO.IN etc.
Try to avoid buying Second level domain if other TLD exist.